Reunert, Theodore (1893) Diamonds and Gold in South Africa. 1972. Rao, C.N. (1915) The Diamond - A Study in Chinese and Hellenistic Folklore. Industrial Minerals card file. Investors Brief, Rex Diamond Mining Corp., Ltd. ; Razumov, A new body of highly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Nakyn field of the Yakutian kimberlite province, Russian Geology and Geophysics, Volume 50, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 162-173. Dana 7: I: 149.; : 44. Kotková, J., O’Brien, P. J., & Ziemann, M. A. ; Maohokite, a post‐spinel polymorph of MgFe2O4 in shocked gneiss from the Xiuyan crater in China. Minerals are not made or influenced by human activity. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (9,Suppl. Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA; Jaques, A. L., Lewis, J. D., & Smith, C. B. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 41(1), 54-92. 18). Ontario Geological Survey (2014), Mineral Deposit Inventory file No. Gordon, C., Ahmimed, C., Gizenga Ngolo, D., & Smillie, I. Whitney, J.D. Nature: 353: 746-748. The softest mineral, talc, has a Mohs scale rating of one. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 39; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 129. Moravec, B., Řídkošil, T.: K výskytu diamantu na ložisku Vestřev v Podkrkonoší. Geological Survey of Japan. Vdovykin, G.P. Diamond industry annual review, 2004: Republic of Angola. (1972). Dana 7: I: 149.; Sci. The characteristics of a diamond are defined by the four C's of diamond, they are as follows. (?) A120-A121. (1995) Presolar diamond, SiC, and graphite in primitive chondrites: Abundances as a function of meteorite class and petrologic type. Hugh E. O'Brien and Matti Tyni (1999) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Kimberlites and Related Rocks from Finland. Report 4, 410 pp. Marvin (1967a), Lonsdaleite, a new hexagonal polymorph of diamond. Field, Ed., The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamonds, vol. Coleman and X. Wang, Eds., Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphism: 427-455. Bulanova, E. Muchemwa, D.G. The paragenetic abundances are similar to macrodiamonds from the DO27 kimberlite (Davies, R.M., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., 1999. Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. Cambridge University Press. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Mineral Resources Bulletin 25, 306 pages. B., ... & Cliff, J. Principais Depósitos Minerais Brasileiros - Gemas e Rochas Ornamentais. Schrauder, M. and Navon, O. P. Dikov, S. L. Molodtsov (2007). Even though the mass of an electron is a tiny mass compared to the mass of a proton or … Diamond exploration in West Greenland – the Qaamasoq prospect. (IBN 1-56980-202-5). Annual diamond production may range from several thousand carats to a few million carats. Diamond and coesite in ultrahigh-pressure–ultrahigh-temperature granulites from Ceuta, Northern Rif, northwest Africa. Smith, G. G., Mocke, G. P., & Swart, D. H. (1994). Orlov, Y.L. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 33(6), 525–538. Auflage. Chemical Geology, 186, 2002, pp. New York: Nelson & Phillips. Van Rythoven, A.D., McCandless, T.E., Schulze, D.J., Bellis, A., Taylor, L.A. & Liu, Y. (1996) A carbon and nitrogen isotope study of diamond from primitive chondrites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31(3):343-355. Henderson (1939), Identification of diamond in the Canyon Diablo iron, Am.Min. In J. (June 30, 1981). Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867b), Notice of the new localities of diamonds in California: California Academy of Natural Sciences Proceedings: 3: 354-355; Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873b): American Journal of Science, 3rd. Comm. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-13. Geology, Vol. Djerfisherite in Kimberlites of the Kuoikskoe field as an indicator of enrichment of Kimberlite melts in chlorine. (1873) Adamantia - The Truth about the South African Diamond Fields. O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. Bespaev H.A., Uzhkenov B.S., Aliaskarov S.A., Egembaev K.M. WH&L Collingridge, London. Mineralogy and Petrology, 76(1-2), 1-19. Minerál, 2008, roč. ; Meteoritics, vol. ; Roesener, H. (2000). (2000) Diamonds and their mineral inclusions, and what they tell us: A detailed "pull-apart" of a diamondiferous eclogite. Chu, P. Shen, J.G. Carlson, E.H. (2015) Minerals of Ohio, 2nd ed. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 136, Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA, Groom, F. (1896) Report of the Department of Mines for the Year 1895. Pearson, B.J. Jones, A.P. London: Methuen & Co. Champion, F.C. It is used as a cutter forindustrial use. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. Khar'kiv, A. D., Levin, V. I., Mankenda, A., & Safronov, A. F. (1992). & Mudrey, M.G. Metall. Fisenko, A.V. Newton, J., Bischoff, A., Arden, J. W., Franchi, I. (July 1992), Dorothy M. Schlegal (1957) Gem Stones of the United States ; USGS Bulletin No.1042-G pg.245. Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Mineralogical Magazine 73,43-50 (2009). 1, p. 91-103. Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.,, Hayden Dalton, Andrea Giuliani, David Phillips, Janet Hergt, Hugh O'Brien (2018) Mineral Chemistry and Petrography of Kuusamo Kimberlites and Related Rocks, Finland. Klein-BenDavid, O., Wirth, R., and Navon, O. of Geology, v. 44, no. Posewitz, T. (1892). 472-480. Explaining the five characteristics of a mineral 2. 60). (2013): Gemstones of Western Australia-mineral resources bulletin 25, Geological Survey of Western Australia(2013): 25, Tyler, E. (2016), Mines and Tribulations: Searching for Aussie Diamond Mines, Jeweller, 23/08/2016. Cairncross, B. (p. 9). Material Properties Of Diamond Diamond is a form of carbon (and allotrope of carbon). Litiofilen. The characteristics of diamond that can be easily tested are its; 1) Hardness 2) Specific Gravity 3) Thermal Conductivity Hardness Diamond is the hardest known mineral, having a hardness of 10 on the Mohs hardness scale. (2010) Diamonds through Time. (1965) Te Sierra Leone Diamonds. Gold Panning Kits. B. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 35(5), 541-564. Daul, J., Bauer, K. & Moser, P. (1993): Bergbau in Namiba - Erfahrungen einer Studienreise. Some, like gold and diamond, is rare and precious, while others, like quartz, are more ordinary. Diamond has many unequaled qualities and is very unique among minerals. Brown, H.F. Henley and W.J. Meyer, H.O.A. Chartwell Books, Inc., 80 pages (p. (1980) A Barrel of Diamonds. Diamonds rate a 10 on the Mohs scale of hardness (from 1 - 10). Minerals 10, 517. ... No, one of the defining characteristics of a mineral is that it is naturally occurring. Transparency crystals are transparent to translucent in rough crystals. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Inverell Metallogenic Map (SH/56-5). Meteoritics & Planetary Science 49(10): 1769-1794. Hall, C. (1998) Identifying Gems & Precious Stones (The new compact study guide and identifier). West. ; Russell, S.S., Arden, J.W. Hanks, Henry Garber (1870), Diamonds in California: Mining and Scientific Press: 20: 162; Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Meteoritics, vol. Meteoric Resources (2016), Quarterly Report for the Quarter Ended 30 September 2016; Brent McInnes, Prok Vasilyev, Tom Reddicliffe (2018) Diamonds and other kimberlitic minerals from the Webb Kimberlite Field, Western Australia. Grieve, R. A. Abstr. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. characteristics of minerals!! 6th orogenic lherzolite conference 2014 Morocco; Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P. T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A. A frequently used lab and field tool. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. It is formed deep in the mantle and is only brought to the surface via kimberlite pipes, lamprophyres, eclogites and other rocks that originate deep within the mantle. B. Eur. (2013). (Oct/Nov 2010). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology (Historical Archives), V 110, N 1, March 1992, pp. First diamonds from placers in Primorie. A. Chaves, M. L. S. C., 2012, Kimberlito Vargem-1 (Coromandel;, MG): bulk sample confirma mineralização diamantifera: Revista Escola Minas, Ouro Preto, v. 65, no. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. Industrial diamonds are embedded in large steel drill bits to drill into rock for wells to find water, oil, and natural gas. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 58: 761-771. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 899-908. Diamond, an elemental mineral, is the hardest mineral on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness (10). Crown Publishers, Inc., New York. If yours floats beneath the surface, sorry, you’re holding a human-made piece. & Lewis, R.S. Shafranovsky G. I. (pp. (1989) Petrochemistry of eclogites from the Koidu Kimberlite Complex, Sierra Leone. Diamonds are found as rough stones and must be processed to create a sparkling gem that is ready for purchase. Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga (2010) Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali. Diamond should be able to scratch a mirror with no problems. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 142(4), 465-475. An atomic nucleus is made of protons and neutrons. Inorganic solides, natural, definite chemical composition, an orderly arrangement of atoms. Legrand, J. et al (1980) Diamonds: Myth, Magic and Reality. (1976) Merumite - A Complex Assemblage of Chromium Minerals from Guyana.United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey Professional Paper 887. Palache, C. (1932) American Mineralogist: 17: 360. and Khachatryan, G.K. (2001) Characteristics of nitrogen and other impurities in diamond, as revealed by infrared absorption data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67 (24): 4823-4848. 4th ESF WORKSHOP. Wiley, New York. Science 290, 320-325. Wade, F.B. Since some bonds are weaker than other bonds, each type of mineral is likely to break where the bonds between the atoms are weaker. Register here. Surv. Geological Survey of British Guiana Bulletin, 17. (in Dutch). Typically yellow, brown or gray to colorless. ; (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. Fetherston, J.M., Stocklmayer, S.M., Stocklmayer, V.C. : 46: 470-471; Ksanda, C.J. Cut 1, pp. J. Journal of Geology: 94: 600-612. Kostrovitsky, S. I., Alymova, N. V., Yakovlev, D. A., Serov, I. V., Ivanov, A. S., & Serov, V. P. (2006, January). 1; p. 53-66. Blackwell Scientific, Cambridge, England. (1973) Rocks, Minerals & Gemstones. A review of the alluvial diamond industry and the gravels of the North West Province, South Africa. (Nov. 2012), Time-Life Books, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 176 pages. Fibrous diamonds from the placers of the northeastern Siberian Platform: carbonate and silicate crystallization media. Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Visit for gemological information about Diamond . There is an additional prize ($500) for the video that receives the most votes online—the People’s Choice winner. Report 4, 410 pp. Gübelin, E. and Wolgensinger, M. (1976) Edelstenen. DNPM, Vol. Gurney, J.J., Helmstaedt, H.H., Richardson, S.H., and Shirey, S.B. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36 (9,Suppl. Dieulafait, L. (1874) Diamonds and Precious Stones. In Kimberlite and Related Rocks, Volume 2: Their Mantle/Crust Setting, Diamonds and Diamond Exploration; Geological Society of Australia, Special Publication, 14, 1029–1041. Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S, Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of Western Australia, Geological Survey of WA, Fetherston, J, Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA, Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013):Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA. International Kimberlite Conference, Extended abstracts, FLA_0109, 22-27 June 2003, Victoria, Canada. The second geological source for diamonds is placer deposits. Mining Annual Review (1985) 440.; (2011) Nature of different compositions of inclusions in diamond. Nature: 335: 784-789. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 653, L153-L156. (in Dutch). Proceedings Pit Iagi Lombok, 39th IAGI Annual Convention and Exhibition. Shuguang Song, Lifei Zhang, Yaoling Niu, Li Su, Ping Jian, Dunyi Liu (2005): Earth and Planetary Science Letters 234, 99-118. Mineral Resources of the United States for 1913; part 2; Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey: 651; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1919), Gems and precious stones: Mineral Resources U.S., 1916, part 2; Department of the Interior, Geological Survey: 892; Mineralogical Record 20 129-142; Rocks & Minerals (1934): 9: 179; Rocks & Minerals (1935): 10: 26; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. NEWMAN, José Albino et al. (2014) Iron containing surfaces of contact of diamond with kimberlite. (2016). Abundances of Presolar Grains in Renazzo and Axtell: Implications for the Thermal Histories. Huntington (1893), On the diamond in the Cañon Diablo meteoric iron and on the hardness of carborundum, Amer. Jaques, A.L., Hall, A.E., Sheraton, J.W., Smith, J.B., Sun, S.S., Drew, R.M., Foudoulis, C., and Ellingsen, K. (1989) Composition of crystalline inclusions and C-isotope composition of Argyle and Ellendale diamonds. A. Kolesov, Yu. Greatest thermal conductivity known. (1991) Submicrometer fluid inclusions in turbid-diamond coats. (1992) On submicrometer inclusions in diamond coat: Crystallography and composition of ankerites and related rhombohedral carbonates. (2014) The Rai-Iz ophiolite massif in the Polar Urals: geology and chromite deposits. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica. Regolith and diamond deposits around Tortiya, Ivory Coast, West Africa. B. Science: 251: 652-655. Diamond’s characteristic chemical composition and crystal structure make it a unique member of the mineral kingdom. Economic Geology 105, 825-840. Minerals are very important in our lives. Transvaal and Orange Free State Chamber of Mines. Merapi Volcano, Indonesia. : 38: 405–420 (English translation from Geol. Diamonds come in many sizes, shapes, colors, and with various internal characteristics. Other Diagnostic Characteristics. London; Harper Brothers, first edition. Fleischer, R. (1998) Mineralium Deposita, 33, 238-254. Minas, Ouro Preto, 57(4): 267-275, out. American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 1833-1840. Economic Geology 105, 689-712. (2013) Gemstones of Western Australia. Soc. Diamondiferous xenoliths from crustal subduction: garnet oxygen isotopes from the Nyurbinskaya pipe, Yakutia. Industrial diamonds are syntheticallyproduced or removed from natural deposits. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 103, 397–422; Ross, J. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. (1982): Alnö Diamonds. 30 Kimberlite Pipe (Liaoning Province, North China Craton): Constraints on Diamond Potential. It's this same process that makes diamonds the hardest mineral we know of. Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. They determine whether a rock is a mineral or solid. Geological Society of Australia Incorporated, 1271 pp. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 1(24). Inst. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 90. Ure Smith, Australia, 192p. Ragozin, A.; Zedgenizov, D.; Shatsky, V.; Kuper, K.; Kagi, H. (2020) Deformation Features of Super-Deep Diamonds. (1944) Birefringence patterns in diamond. Harrison Cookenboo (1996) Ranch Lake Kimberlite In The Central Slave Craton: The Mantle Sample The Gangue Mineral Deposits Division, GAC 52:12-13; Northern Mineral Showings Database, NWT Geoscience Office. Bulletin 735. Cruz, S. R., Watangua, M., Melgarejo, J. C., & Gali, S. (2008). Ruiz-Cruz, M. D., & De Galdeano, C. S. (2012). New insights into the concept of ilmenite as an indicator for diamond exploration, based on kimberlit petrographic analysis. Meteoritics 30 (1), 47-56. Rocks & Minerals (xxxx) 21, 199; 23, 608. (2007): The mineralogy of cosmis cust. 3, p. 219. Mineral Resources of the United States for 1913; part 2; Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey: 651; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 171. Some mines in South Africa reach depths of over 4 kilometers. Hanks, Henry Garber (1882b), Diamonds in California: California Mining Bureau. (2003) Sulfide melt inclusions in Yubileinayan (Yakutia) diamonds. (2015). Discovery and mining of the Argyle diamond deposit, Australia. Owing to similarities in composition, minerals within a same group may have similar characteristics. In Move Mining Next Gen, students from grades K-12 create and submit short, 3-minute videos to answer the question, “Why is mining important in our lives?”  There are prizes for a grades K-5 category ($250), a grades 6-8 category ($250) and a grades 9-12 category ($250), as well as an overall winner ($1,000). Minerals are categorized based on their chemical composition. (2010). Pagel-Theisen, V. (1972) Diamanten-Fibel: Handbuch der Diamanten-Graduierung. ; However, some minerals, such as diamonds, can be manufactured by humans. Diamonds are usually coloures, some are tinged yellow, some blue, brown, green, pink and even black. 403, pp. (in Dutch). Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria No. (1995) Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Bureau of Mines Mineral Trade Notes (Jan 1948). Tadao Nishiyama, Hiroaki Ohfuji, Ukyo Nishi, Kazuki Harada, Kousuke Fukuba (2018) Origin of lowest temperature microdiamond in a metapelite from Nishisonogi, western Japan. ; Gubanov, N.; Zedgenizov, D.; Sharygin, I.; Ragozin, A. In International Kimberlite Conference: Extended Abstracts (Vol. Zinchenko, V.N. Mineralogical characterization of the diamond of the alluvial placer from Icabaru River, Santa Elena de Uairén, Bolivar State, Venezuela. ; Meteoritics 27 (3):267–268. Alphen aan den Rijn: Atrium. South African Journal of Geology, 109(3), 301-314. Pleiades Publishing. (1974) User's Guide to Industrial Diamonds. They can be used for energy, trade, and many other things. p 246. As mentioned before, diamonds are the crystallized form of carbon created under extreme heat and pressure. USGS, Crystal in the Collection of Rock Currier. 3. Ruiz Cruz, M.D., Sanz De Galdeano, C. (2014): Petrology of microdiamond-bearing schists from the Torrox unit, Betic Cordillera, Spain. ; Journal-Geological Society of India, 69(3), 539. abs.]. ; Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 (1) 30-50. Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. dez. Treasures of the USSR Diamond Fund (1975) (in Russian with limited English). Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known. South African Journal of Geology, 107(1-2), 131-146. Acta Crystallographica, Section A: Foundations of Crystallography: 40: 255. Mineralogical Record 42(3) 231-250. Dorothy M. Schlegal (1957) Gem Stones of the United States : USGS Bulletin 1042-G. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. (2000) The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. Uitgeverij Artis, Brussel (in Dutch). (1993) Drainage Basin Evolution in Southeast Guinea and the Development of Diamondiferous Placer Deposits. Blackwell Scientific, Cambridge, U.K. (July1999). : 40. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 806-814. Diamond is the best known thermal conductor (heat transfer) among naturally occurring substances. (Jan 1995). Dissanayake, C.B., Chandrajith, R., Tobschall, H.J. of Mines, Mining, and Geology, Georgia. (2005) Crust-derived potassic fluid in metamorphic microdiamond. Jour. Diamond has a very high melting point of 4000°C which is 2.5 times hotter than the melting point of steel. Zedgenizov, D. A., Araujo, D., Ragozin, A. L., Shatsky, V. S., Kagi, H., & Griffin, W. L. (2008). Harris, J. Diamonds from Zarnitsa and Dalnaya kimberlites (Yakutia): Their nature, growth history, and lithospheric mantle source. Cannon, W. & M. Mudrey (1981) The potential for diamond-bearing kimberlite in northern Michigan and Wisconsin: U. S. Geological Survey: Circular 842: 4. The American Mineralogist, 2(7), 88-89.; Physical Property. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 308-317.; Sobolev, N. V., Logvinova, A. M., Zedgenizov, D. A., Yefimova, E. S., Taylor, L. A., Promprated, P., ... & Zinchuk, N. N. (2003). Kunz, George Frederick (1905a), Gems, jewelers’ materials, and ornamental stones of California: California Division Mines Bulletin 37, 171 pp. ; (2000). Acta Geologica Sinica‐English Edition, 89(2), 341-350. Microstructures in Pyroxenes from the Martian Meteorites Zagami and the Achondrites Bishopville (Aubrite), Hammadah Al Hamra 064, and Jalanash (Ureilites). (2004) Fluid and mineral inclusions in cloudy diamonds from Koffiefontein, South Africa. Butterworths, London, 132pp. Sauer, Jules Roger (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. Stroud: Warwick–Tweed Heads Exploration Data Package Vol. Minerals are not made or influenced by human activity. : 43; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 170. ]), Letseng-La-Terae Mine (Letseng Mine; Lets'eng Mine), Tenoumer concession (Tenoumer kimberlite), Allende meteorite (Pueblito de Allende meteorite; Qutrixpileo meteorite [NHM cat. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. Het dagelijkse leven in de "Diamond Square Mile". A sizeable stone held in the hand feels cold, hence the slang name "ice". 406, No. What is a Mineral? It is also found in alluvial deposits, along with quartz, corundum, zircon and other minerals, derived from such rocks, and in certain meteorites. Lithos, 112, 880-885.; Kononova, V.A., Golubeva, Y.Y., Bogatikov, O.A., and Kargin, A.V. Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Green, H.W., Bozhilov, K.N., Mitchell, T.E., and Dickerson, R.M. In addition to being formed by a natural process, minerals are stable at room temperature. Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Volume III. Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1867c), On new localities of diamonds in California: American Journal of Science, 2nd. (p. 18). Lithos: 77: 243-253. Chen Daogong, Ni Tao, and Xie Liewen (2007): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 50(7), 1013-1020. However, some minerals, such as diamonds, can be manufactured by humans. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. (Oct 2014),; Peter H. Nixon (1987) Mantle xenoliths. ; Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 132(1), 34-47. Lamproites and kimberlites in China and the genesis of diamond deposit. Milledge, H., Mendelssohn, M., Woods, P., Seal, M., Pillinger, C., Mattey, D., Carr, L., and Wright, I. The Mohs Scale is used to determine the hardness of solids, especially minerals. Lithos 76: 435-459. ; Ref. & Kitajima, F. (2008). Diamond is the hardest natural material known and is often used for industrial cutting and polishing tools. New Perspectives on the Caledonides of Scandinavia and Related Areas (pp. Modat Mineral Occurrence database; Northern Territory Geological Survey 2002. Tolansky, S. (1962) The History and Use of Diamond. American Mineralogist, 101, 355-361.; Ogasawara, Y., Fukasawa, K., & Maruyama, S. (2002). Kaminsky, F.V. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science, A19, 265-273. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 72(1-2), 5-20. Minerals are compounds naturally produced on Earth. Geology of Ore Deposits: 53(8): 783-791. Jeannine and Jacques Cassedanne : "Présence d'eskolaite dans les alluvions stannifères de la Chapada Diamantina (Bahia-Brésil), Bull. : 170; Kunz, George Frederick (1905a), Gems, jewelers’ materials, and ornamental stones of California: California Division Mines Bulletin 37, 171 pp. (2011) Geochemistry and petrochemistry of carbonatites and dyke ultrabasites of Chetlassky complex (Timan, Russia). Gunn, C.B. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 147. Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. R.E Brown and W.J Stroud, Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, 1997.; Antony Burnham, Bill Griffin, Hugh O'Neil (2018) Hybrid lithologies in the source of diamonds from Copeton and Bingara, NSW, Australia. Wiley & Sons, 235 pp. Mineralogy of Arizona (1977): 94; Peirce, H.W. The discovery of diamonds in chromitites of the Hegenshan ophiolite, Inner Mongolia, China. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. In Doklady earth sciences (Vol. Het dagelijkse leven in de "Diamond Square Mile". Harris, G. A., Pearson, D. G., Liu, J., Hardman, M. F., Snyder, D. B., & Kelsch, D. (2018). : 42: 413-417; Kunz, G.F. & C.W. The Woolshed Valley, Beechworth. Gemological Institute of America, 135 pp. The Earth makes natural diamonds, and people make synthetic diamonds. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43 (Supplement): A17. du Plessis, J.H. Michaud, M. (2005). (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 90. Report 4, 410 pp. Lindley, A.F., Capt. Carbonatitic to Hydrous Silicic Growth Medium of Diamonds from Internatsionalnaya Kimberlite Pipe, Yakutia. Sauer, J.R. (1982) Brazil, Paradise of Gemstones. O'Neil, P. (1983) Planet Earth - Gemstones. I. Kusnir (1999) Gold in Mali. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites: A carbon and nitrogen isotope study (abstract). Lithos, 120(3), 368-378. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Discrimination of diamond resource and non-resource domains in the Victor North pyroclastic kimberlite, Canada. (July 1996). Abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting, Melbourne, p. 379.; Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 157(2), 245-265. C.R.Geoscience 336, 9-17. This makes diamond the hardest natural mineral on Earth.