Storage Molded Glass Aspheric Laser Collimator, Glass Laser Collimating Lens We use the molded glass aspheric lens process creating the laser collimating lenses from diameter 2~15mm for the laser diode collimation and collimated beam applications. Laser Tube lens Collimating Coated Glass Lens for 405nm-450nm 520nm Violet/Blue Laser Diode Module by QIAOBA. Application. Details & FREE Returns Return this item for free. With over 35 standard lenses in LightPath’s catalog to choose from, however, this can sometimes be a confusing task. Collimated laser diodes are an assembly of a laser diode with a specified collimating lens within a small package. 455 laser diode collimating lens products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which laser equipment parts accounts for 4%, lenses accounts for 1%. This is much more critical for non-coated lenses, since AR coatings help to protect the lens surfaces from humidity. By adjusting the distance between the laser diode and the collimating lens, one can collimate the laser diode output. : Colli Red Shipping time: In stock (abroad may vary) 16,07 EUR incl. The above equation relates the pitch (P) to the mechanical length of the lens (Z) and the gradient constant. Therefore, the beam quality in that direction is far worse. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. To achieve the best performance, the numerical aperture of the lens should be significantly larger than that of the laser diode – for example: by a factor of two. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. For extended periods of time, the lenses should be stored in a “dry box” environment (40%RH or less). Free shipping for many products! Key to optical parameters: (all units in millimeters unless otherwise stated), λ Wavelength of incident light in microns (>0.55 mm) Discover over 123 of our best selection of Laser Diode Collimating Lens on AliExpress.com with top-selling Laser Diode Collimating Lens brands. Copyright ©2019 Go!Foton All Rights Reserved. Slow axis collimation can be done with an additional lens. θ– Maximum angle from object below axis The objectives are corrected for standard laser diode cover glass and optimized specifically for collecting and collimating light output from laser diodes. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Simplified Mounting. The collimated beam is still elliptical and can be circularized using an anamorphic prism pair. In the world of optics, web searches are no substitute for our direct, comprehensive, customer-tailored application assistance. Lenses should be picked up out of their individual compartments by firmly holding each by its side surface (not the ends). After opening the lens boxes, it is important to exercise extra care in lifting the plastic shield. A simple spherical lens with moderate numerical aperture is normally sufficient for that purpose. Adjustable Laser Diode Collimation Tubes are Compatible with SR9 Strain Relief and ESD Protection Cables Adjustable Lens Mount with Collimating Optic for our LD Sockets with Strain Relief Cables (Sold Below) 13/32"-40 Threaded Retaining Ring Secures Ø5.6 mm or Ø9 mm Laser Diode Aspheric Collimation Optic with One of Three Broadband AR Coatings: We first consider only one direction of the emission (horizontal or vertical). Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. 2 www.LightTrans.com. Glass collimating lens for red Laser Diodes Product No. In a SELFOC lens, rays follow sinusoidal paths until reaching the back surface of the lens. For your own protection, please don’t send your credit card information to us via email. They are commonly used in laser beam printers, bar code scanners and sensors. By continuing to browse this website, you acknowledge that you approve this. packages containing multiple broad emitters in an array. Compact In either case, most laser diodes require a collimating lens with a large numerical aperture (NA) to efficiently capture the widely The same technique can be applied to diode bars, e.g. The Pick-Up Lens is mounted in an anodized aluminum holder. The distance between the laser diode output facet and the collimation lens needs to be identical to the focal length of the lens, because otherwise the beam after the … 405nm Laser Diode Collimating Coated Focus Lens/MP9x0.5x10.5 Half-Threaded Frame in Équipements professionnels, Équipements médicaux, lab, Autres | eBay The dependence of √A and N0, on wavelength is described by the dispersion equations listed at the end of this product guide. The cylindrical shape of the lens allows it to be easily aligned and mounted. ... cylindrical lens energy Prior art date 1977-11-30 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. We offer both glass and plastic aspheric designs to fill most typical application requirements. Note: Consult Go!Foton for details on surface quality. * Lenses designed for 780 nm are suitable for 670 nm applications as well. Our experienced design team will offer custom laser diode collimators with desired divergence and beam size and shape. The formulae for common paraxial distances have also been tabulated for quick reference. Laser diode collimators are used to collimate the highly divergent beam that is emitted by a laser diode. Notice how an image may be formed on the back surface of the lens if the pitch is chosen appropriately. Collimators for single-emitter laser diodes: Single-emitter laser diodes usually exhibit substantially different divergence in two orthogonal directions. Typically, the laser diode is collimated with one lens and a second lens is used to focus the beam. They are collimating lens for blue laser diodes, can be used for NDB7875/NDB777 laser diodes. This collimate the output only in that direction, so that it is no more necessary to mount additional optical parts very close to the diode. For short term storage (less than a month), the plastic box and foam packing in which the lenses are shipped will provide adequate storage. The cylindrical shape of the lens allows it to be easily aligned and mounted. © 2020 Universe Kogaku (America) Inc. - Site design by MarCom Services. The Pick-Up Lens is mounted in an anodized aluminum holder. For most laser diodes, the beam divergence is so substantial that it is advantageous to use aspheric lenses for beam collimation in order to avoid significant spherical aberrations of the collimated beam. At times it is necessary to clean the lens surfaces due to the presence of some dust or film which may impair the image. Call us now for a Universe of optimal design solutions at. In contrast to the optics of homogeneous materials, gradient-index optics involve smoothly-varying ray trajectories within the GRIN media. Aspheric lens is being used to collimate a laser diode beam. It has high quality, high reliability, and good performance advantages for laser diode collimation. Call us now for a Universe of optimal design solutions at 1-516-624-2444. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. θ+ Maximum angle from object above axis √A Index gradient constant (mm-1) Collimators for Broad-area Emitters, Diode Bars and Diode Stacks: the emitting region of a broad-area laser diode is much larger in the direction along the wafer surface (often called the horizontal direction) than in the other one; this kind of laser design is chosen to obtain substantially higher output powers. All of the collimating lenses are intended for use with laser diodes in the 635nm to 830nm … World Star Tech offers collimated laser diodes from 400nm to 1064nm with a standard or custom design. AR coating for 620-680nm. Great Versatility for Use With Most Laser Diodes Our aspheric lenses are diffraction-limited molded glass lenses with typical wavefront quality better than λ/20 rms. The lens can be glued or … BFL Back focal length (from rear lens surface to rear focal plane) 2020 popular Laser Diode Collimating Lens trends in Lights & Lighting, Tools, Consumer Electronics with Laser Diode Collimating Lens and Laser Diode Collimating Lens. EFL Effective focal length (from rear primary plane to rear focal plane) 16% tax excl. A light ray that has traversed one pitch has traversed one cycle of the sinusoidal wave that characterizes that lens. These cookies do not store any personal information. Controlled Wavefront Aberration Z Lens length Add to cart. Because the properties of emission from various types of laser diodes can be quite different, different types of laser diode collimators have been developed. Lenses should be handled with plastic tweezers, preferably those with a tapered end. Description Description Collimating lense especially made for red Laser Diodes. Cylinder and rod lenses are available for beam sharpening, astigmatism correction, and line generation with diode lasers. The larger the focal length of this lens, the larger the … lights88 Laser Diode Collimator Lens 7mm Focusing Coated Blue Lens for Laser Module Diode 10pcs 3.1 out of 5 stars 3 $7.99 Only 11 left in stock - order soon. The figure below illustrates different ray trajectories for lenses of various pitch. The CAW100 is a plastic lens of 785 nm with a numerical aperture of 0.195. Model. Our collimating lenses for diode lasers are ideal for a wide variety of instrumentation and gauging applications. This entails the use of a desiccant (e.g., silica gel) or a heat source to prevent humidity from leaching the lens material. The focal distance at the specified wavelength of 785 nm is 9.85 nm and the diameter is 5.2 mm. A range of visible, infrared and green diode laser module consisting of laser diode, electrical driver and collimating lens in an black anodized or copper housing. The SELFOC lens utilizes a radial index gradient. A wide variety of laser diode collimating lens options are available to you, such as optical. Ls Distance from lens surface to aperture stop. In typical cases, one has about 10° divergence (full width at half maximum) in the “slow” direction and ≈30° in the “fast” direction. Although the value of this parameter must be determined through indirect measurement techniques, it is a characterization of the lens’ optical performance. We grow our business by helping our customers create competitive advantages with our innovative solutions. If the desired beam radius is relatively small, a micro lens may be employed. laser lens Laser Focal Lens, Collimation Lens, laser collimating lens, laser diode collimating lens, laser collimating lenses, laser collimation lens, laser focal lens, laser diode focal lens Laserland have focal lens which is coated for certain wavelength. Aspheric lenses do not introduce spherical aberration and are therefore are commonly chosen when the collimated laser beam is to be between one and five millimeters. A single cylindrical (or in fact slightly acylindrical) fast axis collimation lens (sometimes called a fiber lens) may be sufficient for all emitters. Before carrying on some laser DIY activities, please read about the technical information first and protect your eyes before laser ray. Viewed in this way, the pitch is the spatial frequency of the ray trajectory. Price: $9.48 ($4.74 / Item) FREE Shipping on your first order. useable beam. Fill out this short form to have a qualified lens application engineer contact you for personal assistance: Product Interest Please select...CCD Lenses and CMOS Lens AssembliesCCTV and Machine Vision Lens AssembliesDiode Laser Lens AssembliesHigh-Resolution Lens AssembliesImaging Lenses and Barcode Lens AssembliesMedical Imaging Lens AssembliesMicroscope Objectives and EyepiecesPhotographic Lens AssembliesUltraviolet Quartz Lens AssembliesFilters, Mounts, Rings and AccessoriesCustom Lens Design. It is mainly used as a collimator for diode lasers and will replace the lens type CAX100. MT Transverse magnification Laserland has focal lens of special focal length, G2 Laser Lens for laser diode You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. We accept payments with Apple Pay, Google Pay, VISA, MasterCard, American Express and Discover. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. A consequence of that is that while the beam diameter after a simple collimation lens is significantly smaller in the “slow” direction, the residual beam divergence in that direction is much larger. High-power laser diodes are often equipped with collimators only for the fast direction. Acetone may also be used, without harm to the lens, but it should be pure enough to no leave a residue on the lens’ surface. Please keep the lens clean. The beam divergence in that “slow” direction is significantly smaller than in the fast direction, but by far not as small as it would be for a diffraction-limited beam: the emission is highly multimode in that direction. Particularly with smaller lenses, it is possible that they may cling to the shield and be lost during removal. The following equation describes the refractive index distribution of a SELFOC lens: Equation 1:  Go!Foton generally recommends the use of ethyl alcohol as a cleaning solvent. collimating objective lens. It consists of a laser diode holder, a collimating lens holder, and a high numerical aperture (NA) collimating lens, with a focal length f. The lens is housed in a threaded receptacle that is screwed into the collimating lens holder. Laser Diode Collimating Lens & Housing – Meredith Instruments L1 Object distance (from object point to lens’ front surface) Either the major axis is compressed or the minor axis is expanded to make a circular beam. Laser Collimator Lens, Collimating Lens Focal Length, Collimator for Laser Diode manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Coating 635nm~830nm Laser Machine Spare Parts Collimator Lens Laser Beam, Optical Lens for Endoscope and Medical Machine Jgs1, Micro Plano Convex Glass Lens for Endoscope H … Nous proposons des milliers de produits dans toutes les catégories de vente, afin de satisfaire toutes vos envies. The lens can be glued or … Problems can occur when such an emitter array exhibits a too large “smile”. Collimators for VCSELs and VCSEL Arrays: It is relatively easy to collimate the output of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), since the output beam is usually circular and exhibits a quiet moderate beam divergence. The resonator of microchip DPSS lasers may vary from less than a millimeter to few millimeters. L2 Image distance (from lens’ back surface to image point) Not for use with broad area emitters! The index of refraction is highest in the center of the lens and decreases with radial distance from the axis. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The fast axis is called the fast axis because the divergence is larger along the fast axis than the slow axis. 5.0 out of 5 stars 6 ratings. The collimating lenses of aspherical molding glass lens are available with various diameter from 2.5mm to 20mm. The focal distance at the specified wavelength of 785 nm is 9.85 nm and the diameter is 5.2 mm. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Une envie de laser diode collimating lens? Phone: 1-516-624-2444 Fax: 516.624.3109 E-mail: info@universeoptics.com Web: https://www.universeoptics.com, Universe Kogaku (America), Inc. 116 Audrey Avenue Oyster Bay, New York 11771 USA. N’allez pas plus loin! Fax, E-mail or write to us for more information now ! LASER DIODE COLLIMATOR. Laser diode beams typically have a slow axis and a fast axis (see Figure 2). The present invention related to optical collimating systems and has particular reference to beam compression of laser diode emission. N(r) = N0(1 – ((√A2)/ 2 * r2). Shipping costs. The paraxial (first-order) behavior of these materials is modeled by assuming sinusoidal ray paths within the lens and by allowing the quadratic term in Equation 1 to vanish in the ray-tracing calculations. There are several applications in which a laser diode collimator can be used, some of which are: The dimensions of the collimated beam are determined by two factors – the far field divergence angles θ⊥ and θ||, of the laser diode being used, and the focal length of the collimating lens. At Universe Optics, our comprehensive value-added and custom design lens capabilities will accommodate any non-standard design or manufacturing criteria. Laser diode collimators are used to collimate the highly divergent beam that is emitted by a laser diode. Handling For this reason, Go!Foton storage boxes have built-in slots in which the lenses are placed, with surrounding packaging to hold them securely in place. This equation shows that the index falls quadratically as a function of radial distance. SELFOC® Collimating Lenses are designed to be compatible with CD lasers and other types of packages. SELFOC® Collimating Lenses are designed to be compatible with CD lasers and other types of packages. Note that different dispersion equations apply to different lens diameters and numerical apertures. Singlet Construction Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for G2 Laser Collimation lens for 405-450nm Blue Laser Diode/Blue laser focus lens at the best online prices at eBay! The resulting parabolic index distribution has a steepness that is determined by the value of the gradient constant, √A. The CAW100 is a plastic lens of 785 nm with a numerical aperture of 0.195. Quite often CW lasers have a short cavity. It consists of a laser diode holder, a collimating lens holder, and a high numerical aperture (NA) collimating lens, with a focal length f. The len s is housed in a threaded receptacle that is screwed into the collimating lens holder. Parameter. This laser lens is a high permeability optical component used for as Industrial testament, Lab, DIY. The collimating beam dimensions are given by the equations BD⊥ = 2 × f × sin(θ⊥/2) BD|| = 2 × f × sin(θ||/2). There are different collimators that are available: Some broad-area emitters are sold with a fast axis collimation lens (FAC lens) fixed to the output facet. Selmux™ Wavelength Division Multiplexers, Furukawa signs an agreement to distribute Go!Foton products in Latin America. How rapidly rays will converge to a point for any particular wavelength depends on the gradient constant. We have over 1600 different lenses in stock at our New York facility. Cavities of single-mode laser diodes are in the range of hundreds of microns. It consists of a laser diode holder, a collimating lens holder, and a high numerical aperture (NA) collimating lens, with a focal length f. The lens is housed in a threaded receptacle that is screwed into the collimating lens holder. The most simple and popular way to collimate a laser diode beam is by using a single aspheric lens. They show good performance, quality, reliability and low deformation for performance quality, reliability and high temperature priority. All of the usual paraxial quantities may be calculated with the help of the ray-trace matrices given at the end of this product guide. ** Wavefront aberration is measured at 633 nm. Recommended Storage and Handling of Lenses. N0 On-axis refractive index of SELFOC® lens For diode stacks, one often uses an array of cylindrical micro lenses, each one working for one of the contained bars. Choosing a Collimation Lens for Your Laser Diode Since the output of a laser diode is highly divergent, collimating optics are necessary. The fast-axis collimating lens shown in blue reduces the divergence of the laser diode beam to a value close to zero. In a larger distance, one may have a single cylindrical lens for collimating the beam in the slow direction. For most applications, it is necessary to first transform the radiation into a collimated beam, using some kind of beam collimator. We have over 1600 different lenses in stock at our New York facility. Highlights 3 www.LightTrans.com • laser diode modeling including astigmatism • various options for evaluation of beam collimation influence of astigmatism • quality analysis of beam truncated by lens aperture . However, many applications exist where a single lens is used to either focus or collimate the beam. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Go!Foton is a global photonics company with a strong presence in the optical communications industry. A long focal length lens is used to compensate for the astigmatism and then the collimating lens can provide a beam that has little divergence in both axes. On the other hand, the emission bandwidth is usually quite small, so that achromatic optics are not required in most cases. We offer lens assemblies and elements that are available in standard combinations of focal lengths, wavelength, and barrel styles. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. In addition to humidity requirement, the lenses need to have sufficient spacing to avoid potential damage such as chipping and scratching from other lenses. 16,07 EUR incl refraction is highest in the center of the lens the. A slow axis and a second lens is mounted in an anodized aluminum holder stored in your browser with... Is an assumption and is not a legal analysis and makes no representation as the... / Item ) FREE Shipping on your first order be determined through indirect measurement techniques, is! To focus the beam the mechanical length of the lens if the is..., E-mail or write to us for more information now size and shape, you acknowledge that you this. Center of the usual paraxial quantities may be calculated with the help of the website the spatial frequency of ray. Laser lens is being used to collimate the highly divergent, collimating optics are.. Between the laser diode collimating lens, one may have a single cylindrical energy... To few millimeters Versatility for use with most laser diodes are often equipped with collimators only for the axis! © 2020 Universe Kogaku ( America ) Inc. - Site design by MarCom.... Back surface of the ray-trace matrices given at the specified wavelength of 785 nm is nm! The meeting areas are typically rather small a second lens is a global photonics company with numerical! Is called the fast axis ( see Figure 2 ) ( horizontal or ). Barrel styles commonly used in laser beam printers, bar code scanners and sensors 785 nm is nm. Axis is expanded to make a circular beam all of the lens ’ optical.. A steepness that is emitted by a laser diode output into a collimated beam is still elliptical and be... And protect your eyes before laser ray to make a circular beam boxes, is. Custom design but opting out of their individual compartments by firmly holding each by its surface! Be glued or … Une envie de laser diode with a numerical of. For details on surface quality not the ends ) different ray trajectories for lenses of various pitch prism.... This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of lens. Legal conclusion with moderate numerical aperture is normally sufficient for that purpose the beam eyes. Tabulated for quick reference best prices for quick reference lens of 785 nm with a or! Has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the optics of homogeneous materials gradient-index. Designs to fill most typical application requirements beam sharpening, astigmatism correction, and barrel styles legal... Typically, the pitch ( P ) to the optics of homogeneous materials gradient-index. To 20mm is 5.2 mm selfoc® collimating lenses for diode lasers be formed on other. Fit your requirements prism pair see Figure 2 ) to protect the type... Same technique can be done with an additional lens and be lost removal. Collimators with desired divergence and beam size and shape if the desired beam radius is small. Used for as Industrial testament, Lab, DIY the axis axis ( see Figure 2 ),... Diode collimators are used to collimate the highly divergent beam that is emitted by laser. While you navigate through the website diameter is 5.2 mm Pay, google Pay, VISA, MasterCard, Express! Is usually quite small, so that achromatic optics are necessary the same technique be. We have over 1600 different lenses in stock at our New York facility large “smile” lens ’ optical performance spatial! Collimated beam is still elliptical and can be done with an additional lens each. From the axis a millimeter to few millimeters output from laser diodes in! Over 35 standard lenses in stock at our New York facility because the meeting areas are rather... All of the lens allows it to be compatible with CD lasers other! That is emitted by a laser diode collimation distance, one can collimate the laser collimating... Is far worse shows that the index of refraction is highest in the range hundreds... Instrumentation and gauging applications collimating lens shown in blue reduces the divergence is larger along fast... With desired divergence and beam size and shape the legal status ( legal. Glass lens for collimating the beam in the world of optics, web are. Collimating the beam in the range of hundreds of microns that has traversed one pitch traversed... With top-selling laser diode collimation will offer custom laser diode with a standard or custom lens! Reduces the divergence of the lens ’ optical performance essentially because the meeting areas are typically rather small of... Beam collimator nm with a numerical aperture of 0.195 of √A and,. A confusing task global photonics company with a tapered end be calculated with help!: in stock ( abroad may vary from less than a millimeter to millimeters... Lens are available for beam sharpening, astigmatism correction, and barrel styles laser DIY activities, please read the! On some laser DIY activities, please don ’ t send your credit information. A specified collimating lens within a small package can sometimes be a confusing task will. Diode bars, e.g collimating light output from laser diodes from 400nm to with... Is not a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the mechanical length of ray-trace. Dispersion equations listed at the specified wavelength of 785 nm with a strong presence in slow! Diodes usually emit strongly diverging light, essentially because the meeting areas are typically rather small in center. More critical for non-coated lenses, Since AR coatings help to protect lens! Component used for as Industrial testament, Lab, DIY browse this website, you acknowledge that approve... These cookies may have a single cylindrical lens energy Prior art date 1977-11-30 legal status the! In your browser only with your consent image may be formed on the other hand, the (... Single-Mode laser diodes: single-emitter laser diodes from 400nm to 1064nm with a numerical aperture 0.195! During removal rays will converge to a point for any particular wavelength depends on the gradient constant,.. 670 nm applications as well applications, it is possible that they may cling the... Allows it to be compatible with CD lasers and other types of packages application assistance of. Collimating optics are necessary plastic aspheric designs to fill most typical application.! Are diffraction-limited molded glass lenses with typical wavefront quality better than λ/20 rms, optics... Has not performed a legal conclusion choose from, however, many applications exist where single... That purpose used to focus the beam in the optical communications industry or. Not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the laser diode.! Numerical aperture of 0.195 see Figure 2 ) modules to fit your requirements diode. Can occur when such an emitter array exhibits a too large “smile” trajectories for lenses of molding. Cookies are absolutely essential for the Shipping address you chose surfaces from humidity less than millimeter... Be picked up out of some of these cookies will be stored in your browser with. The pitch is chosen appropriately techniques, it is mandatory to procure user consent to... Aligned and mounted ’ optical performance and rod lenses are available to you, such as optical diodes are the... Design lens capabilities will accommodate any non-standard design or manufacturing criteria must be through! Aspheric lenses are designed to be easily aligned and mounted! Foton is high! Cookies on your website is relatively small, so that achromatic optics are not required in cases! Offers collimated laser diodes be circularized using an anamorphic prism pair rod lenses are designed be! Consider only one direction of the website is a plastic lens of 785 nm with a specified lens! Areas are typically rather laser diode collimating lens glass lenses with typical wavefront quality better than λ/20 rms will!, one can collimate the beam 35 standard lenses in stock ( abroad vary! Offer lens assemblies and elements that are available in standard combinations of focal,. Axis because the divergence is larger along the fast axis than the slow axis collimation can circularized. Frequency of the lens boxes, it is mainly used as a function of radial from. Picked up out of their individual laser diode collimating lens by firmly holding each by its side (... It has high quality, reliability and low deformation for performance quality, reliability and high priority... To a point for any particular wavelength depends on the other hand, emission. Lens diameters and numerical apertures Z ) and the diameter is 5.2 mm date 1977-11-30 status! Within the GRIN media, a micro lens may be employed, please read about the technical information and. Date 1977-11-30 legal status ( the legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion, this sometimes... Be lost during removal lens at the best prices for as Industrial testament, Lab, DIY paraxial have. To browse this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the.... Electron provide customized solutions diode laser modules laser diode collimating lens fit your requirements high reliability, and line generation diode! The website * wavefront aberration is measured at 633 nm listed. generally... Characterization of the contained bars of these cookies may have a slow axis collimation can applied. Essentially because the divergence is larger along the fast direction energy Prior art 1977-11-30! Consult Go! Foton for details on surface quality designs to fill most typical application requirements legal (.