http://www.tomrichey.netThe Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618-1648 (Thirty Years!) [70], After Tilly's death, Ferdinand turned once again to Wallenstein; knowing Gustavus was over extended, he marched into Franconia and established himself at Fürth, threatening the Swedish supply chain. This was known as The Defenestration. Ferdinand pulled together an Imperial army under Gallas to attack the Swedes from the rear, which proved a disastrous decision. A brief treatment of the Thirty Years’ War follows. That is a phrase that is usually used to describe many conflicts in the 17th century, but it has become adapted to describe what brings together the war of 1914 – 1918, on the one side, and the war of 1939 – 1945, on the other. Why was Germany Europe's highway? While Denmark kept Schleswig and Holstein until 1864, this effectively ended its reign as the predominant Nordic state. [78] Ferdinand was forced to divert Piccolomini's army from Thionville, effectively ending direct military cooperation with Spain. In Lorraine, the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, occupied by France since 1552, were formally ceded, as were the cities of the Décapole in Alsace, with the exception of Strasbourg and Mulhouse. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. [76], Ferdinand II died in February 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who faced a Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. [92], Ferdinand restarted peace talks in November, but his position worsened when Gallas' army disintegrated; the remnants retreated into Bohemia, where they were scattered by Torstenson at Jankau in March 1645. This allowed Spinola to move troops and supplies by road, rather than sea where the Dutch navy held the advantage and by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It began as a fight about religion — the Protestants and Catholics were the two groups that disagreed. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. [100], While Turenne and Wrangel continued to devastate Bavaria, a second Swedish force attacked Prague, seizing the castle and Malá Strana district in July. The Peace of Westphalia consisted of three separate agreements; the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, the treaty of Osnabrück between the Empire and Sweden, plus the treaty of Münster between the Empire and France. [142], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. a) All who took part were at least 30 b) 30 individuals were the cause of the uprising c) One nation split into 30 separate groups d) It lasted for 30 years 2. [35], Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere. Start studying World History - Chapter 15.5 - The Thirty-Years' War. The war had its origin in the religious disputes between the Catho­lics and the Protests. Similar phrases were repeated in many other publications, even if most communities did not celebrate peace until 1650, the year in which the terms agreed at Westphalia were implemented. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. The Thirty Years' War was an ongoing conflict between Protestants and Roman Catholics that lasted from 1618 to 1648. What made the Thirty Years' War so devastating? More common were disputes such as the 1606 'Battle of the Flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. [96] Seeking to release French troops and prevent further Swedish gains by neutralising Bavaria, Mazarin negotiated the Truce of Ulm, signed on 14 March 1647 by Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden. Hence when the Thirty Years War started in 1618, England did nothing despite the religious issue being a prominent one in Bohemia. [26], Frederick IV now formed the Protestant Union, largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. [84] The Swedes captured Leipzig in December, giving them a significant new base in Germany, and although they failed to take Freiberg in February 1643,[85] the Saxon army was reduced to a few garrisons. Where and why did the Thirty Years' War begin? [69] He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). The Empire remained a formidable power but could no longer subsidise Ferdinand, impacting his ability to continue the war. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the... Danish Intervention. [99] Outnumbered by a Franco-Swedish army under Wrangel and Turenne, they were defeated at Zusmarshausen in May 1648, while von Holzappel was killed. James responded to this attack on his son-in-law by sending naval forces to threaten Spanish possessions in the Americas and the Mediterranean, and announced he would declare war if Spinola had not withdrawn his troops by spring 1621. [72] Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. It goes back to the Peace of Augsburg signed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V on Sept. 25, 1555. The Thirty Years' War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. 462 times. The Swedes rejected a proposal that Christian of Denmark act as mediator, with Papal Legate Fabio Chigi and the Venetian Republic appointed instead. 10th - 11th grade. [88], By now, the devastation inflicted by 25 years of warfare meant all armies spent more time foraging than fighting. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. Hoping to create a wider coalition against Ferdinand, the Dutch invited France, Sweden, Savoy, and the Republic of Venice to join, but it was overtaken by events. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). I want to talk about the «Thirty Years War». You'll have a rollicking good time learning about this complicated time with this Thirty Years War history lesson. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden. [104], Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. The range of confessions in Germany, 1650, as a result of the Thirty Years' War. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. On 19 May, Condé won a famous victory over the Spanish at Rocroi, although it was less decisive than often assumed. Confident of victory, Ferdinand now passed the Edict of Restitution, which sought to reverse Catholic property losses confirmed by Augsburg. These trials lasted five years and claimed over one thousand lives, including long-time Bürgermeister, or Mayor, Johannes Junius, and Dorothea Flock, second wife of Georg Heinrich Flock, whose first wife had also been executed for witchcraft in May 1628. The armies of both sides plundered as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms ravaged. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. Before restarting hostilities, Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, had first to secure the Spanish Road, an overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders. Even after union, the Portuguese dominated the Atlantic trade in Triangular trade, exporting slaves from West Africa and Angola to work sugar plantations in Brazil. Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War, La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo, Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, "German 'witch' declared innocent after 385 years", "The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany", "The face of war: Trauma analysis of a mass grave from the Battle of Lützen (1632)", "The Socio-Economic Relations of Warfare and the Military Mortality Crises of the Thirty Years' War", "Real Wages and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth in Germany, 16th to 19th Centuries", "The Long-term Impact of the Thirty Years War: What Grain Price Data Reveal", "The Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Structure of European Politics", http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php, Project "Peace of Westphalia" (among others with Essay Volumes of the 26th Exhibition of the Council of Europe "1648: War and Peace in Europe", 1998/99), BBC Radio4 documentary – The Invention of Germany: The Thirty Years' War and Magdeburg, – Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth, "The Thirty Years' War – how was peace achieved? [19], After 1560, the Protestant cause was divided by the growth of Calvinism, a Reformed faith not recognised by Augsburg; Lutheran states like Saxony viewed Calvinists in the Palatinate and Brandenburg with mistrust, paralysing Imperial institutions. Causes of the war . Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. 30 years war DRAFT. They offered the Crown to the Protestant Frederick V of the Palatinate, who accepted, but most German princes refused to support him, and by early 1620 the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. [65], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. [116], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'. With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. [29], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. The Soviet-Afghan War lasted nine years: it was Russia’s longest war in a century that also included a civil war, two world wars, and a number of international conflicts. a year ago. [71] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. [89] The French also had to rebuild their army in Germany after it was shattered by an Imperial-Bavarian force led by Franz von Mercy at Tuttlingen in November. [67], However, once again Richelieu provided the requisite support; in the 1631 Treaty of Bärwalde, he provided funds for the Heilbronn League, a Swedish-led coalition of German Protestant states, including Saxony and Brandenburg. 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